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Major Syntactic Forms in English

Sandie Barrie-Blackley
posted this on September 29, 2011 20:52

This chart of the major syntactic forms in English may be helpful when doing an analysis of a

writing sample.

FORMS

CATEGORIES

EXAMPLE(S)

noun

common

proper

concrete

abstract

count

non-count

collective

state, dessert

Alabama, Maria, Jon

brick, elbow

jealousy, heaven

bow tie, leaf

cement, integrity

jury, team

pronoun

personal

     nominative

     objective

     possessive

     reflexive

demonstrative

indefinite

relative

interrogative

 

I, you, he, they

me, you, him, them

my, your, his, theirs

yourself, ourselves

this, that, these, those

both, many, some

that, who, which

why, which, what

verb

simple

     present

     past

     future

progressive

     present

     past

     future

Perfect

     present

     past

     future

active voice

passive voice

main verb

auxiliary verb

contractible auxiliary

uncontractible auxiliary

copula

complar verb

contractible copula

uncontractible copula

modal auxiliary

prepositional verb

transitive verb

intransitive verb

infinitive

gerund

participle

 

Tom calls.

Tom called.

Tom will call.

 

Tom is calling.

Tom was calling.

Tom will be calling.

 

Tom has called.

Tom had called.

Tom will have called.

The dog caught the mole.

The mole was caught by the dog.

The ostrich is eating.

The ostrich is eating.

He is comingà He’s coming.

He was coming

The man is sad.

arrive, seem, appear

We are hereà We’re here.

We were here.

may, might, shall, must

object to, run for, stand for

kick, hit, put

sleep, dream

I love to runTo draw is divine.

Swimming is a fun workout.

He is running.  She was running.

adjective

simple

compound

positive

comparative

superlative

descriptive

     attributive

     predicate

limiting

     proper

     possessive

     demonstrative

     cardinal

     ordinal

     indefinite

     interrogative

 

ugly dog, dirty mitten

ball-point pen, smashed-up car

pretty, good

prettier, better

prettiest, best

 

a pretty baby, the blue sky

That is cool.  She seems nice.

 

English class, IBM computer

the man’s coat, Brady’s dog

This one’s red. These boots are cool.

It’s only two dollars.  I’d like three tickets.

I won first place.  It’s the fourth edition.

Some cats eat mice. I asked both girls.

Whose house is this? Which color do you prefer?

adverb

simple

compound

positive

comparative

superlative

conjunctive adverb

manner adverb

place adverb

time adverb

degree adverb

number adverb

reason adverb

affirmation adverb

negation adverb

here, lastly

counterclockwise, contra-laterally

slowly, angrily

more slowly, more angrily

most slowly, most angrily

thus, additionally, however

quickly, particularly, well, slowly

here, there, near, outside

before, immediately, now

much, more, nearly, only

first, secondly, lastly

because, consequently

absolutely, indeed

never, no, not

determiner

article

possessive

demonstrative

quantifier

Wh-word

a, an, the

my, his, her

this, that, there, those

every, each, some, two

what, which, whichever

conjunction

coordinating

subordinating

correlative

simple

compound

phrasal

conjunctive adverb

 

for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so

after, though, when, because

either/or, neither/nor, whether/or

and, after, so, when

thereafter, however, nevertheless

that is, even if, as such

otherwise, however, consequently

 

preposition

simple

compound

phrasal

prepositional adverb

prepositional verb

time

place

accompaniment

destination

means

possession

relation

in, on, under, behind

without, underneath,  nearby

as for, in spite of, according to

after, below, about, under

object to, run for, stand for

at, between, during, for

against, along, among, on

with, without

for, to

by, with, without

of

of

 

Justice, L.M. and Ezell, H. K. (2002)  (Appendix B)   The Syntax Handbook: Everything you learned about syntax but forgot. Eau Claire: Thinking Publications.