Fletcher, Lyon, Fuchs & Barnes (2007):Ten General Principles for Instructing Students with LDs


 Learning Disabilities: From Identification to Intervention. New York: The Guilford Press by Fletcher, J.M., Lyon, G. R., Fuchs, L.S., Barnes, M.A. (2007). 

This is the authors’ "take-home" message, based on their extensive research review (on pp. 272-274).

“Across reading, written expression, and mathematics and within each domain, and across foundational skills and higher-order processes, the research we have reviewed in this book (along with other corroborating studies in the literature) provides the basis for drawing 10 conclusions about how to design instruction to enhance academic outcomes for students with LDs.

  1. Set up any intervention to increase time on task.
  2. Use an instructional approach that is explicit, well organized, and routinely provides opportunity for cumulative review of previously mastered content (of both ‘top-down’ and ‘bottom-up’ content).
  3. Teach self-regulation strategies.
  4. Consider peer-mediation ‘scaffolding.’
  5. Use integrated, systematic instruction that includes both foundational skills and higher-order processes (even for students whose foundational skills are weak).
  6. Academic therapies are most effective for LDs.    "Basing therapy on ‘processing deficits' and 'perceptual skills' with no attention to specific academic skills does not improve outcomes."      “Gains are specific to what is taught.”
  7. Instructional programs need to be integrated. Focus on the ultimate competencies, not just isolated skills.
  8. Students with LDs are heterogeneous, with a number of major comorbidities (e.g., ADHD) that need to be taken in to account for each individual.
  9. Use frequent progress monitoring to inform instruction.
  10. Systematically integrate intervention with general education practices. "


The checklist below shows how Lexercise meets these research-backed principles.

Intervention Principles Checklist:  Fletcher, et al. (2007)


  1. Increases time on task.


  1. Scope & sequence is explicit, organized & cumulative.


  1. Teaches self-regulation.


  1. Considers peer-mediation ‘scaffolding.’


  1. Integrated & systematic scope & sequence; top-down & bottom-up.


  1. Addresses specific reading and writing skills.


  1. Focuses on the ultimate competencies, not just isolated skills.


  1. Customized for each individual.


  1. Includes ongoing progress monitoring.


  1. Systematically integrated with general education.



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